Monday, April 6, 2015

In re Iconography

We, therefore, following the royal pathway and the divinely inspired authority of our Holy Fathers and the traditions of the Catholic Church (for, as we all know, the Holy Spirit dwells in her), define with all certitude and accuracy that, like the figure of the precious and life-giving Cross, so also, venerable and holy images of our Lord God and Savior Jesus Christ, of our spotless Lady, the Mother of God, of the honorable angels, of all saints and of all the just, whether painted or made of mosaic or another suitable material, are to be set forth in the holy churches of God, on the sacred vessels, on the vestments, on walls and panels, in houses, and on streets.  For the more frequently they are seen in artistic representation, the more readily men are lifted up to the memory of their prototypes and to longing after them; and to these should be given due greeting and honorable reverence, not indeed that adoration (latreia) which pertains to the divine nature alone, but incense and candles may be offered to these, as to the figure of the precious and life-giving Cross, the Book of the Gospels, and other holy objects, according to ancient and pious custom.  For the honor that is paid to the image passes on to what the image represents, and he who reveres the image reveres in it the subject represented.
(2d Council of Nicea, A.D. 787)

The images of Christ, of the Virgin Mother of God, and of other saints are to be kept and preserved, in places of worship especially, and to them due honor and veneration is to be given, not because it is believed that there is in them anything divine or any power for which they are revered, nor in the sense that something is sought from them or that a blind trust is put in images as once was done by the gentiles who placed their hope in idols, but because the honor that is shown to them is referred to the original subjects that they represent. Thus, through these images that we kiss and before which we kneel and uncover our heads, we are adoring Christ and venerating the saints whose likeness these images bear.
(Council of Trent, Session XXV, December 1563)

The same subject, continued.

Monday, March 9, 2015

Reform of the Reform?

Rorate Caeli writes:
Intentionally celebrating the Mass facing the people, displacing the altar from the sanctuary (and in fact doing away with a tangible "sanctuary" in the traditional sense), covering up or removing the high altar, the use of a "table-altar", communion no longer received while kneeling ... we are often assured by "conservative" writers that these had nothing to do either with Paul VI or Vatican II, and in fact became widespread only years later, and against the express will of both. However, the records of this Mass and of Masses publicly celebrated by Paul VI in the years immediately after 1965 show that he was at the vanguard of these changes. This is ironic given the tendency in some Reform of the Reform circles to point to the "1965 Missal" as the way to resacralization and the return to tradition for the wider Church -- a Missal whose very birth was attended by many of the innovations now deplored by these same circles.

Equally of note is that these innovations, which many in the Reform of the Reform camp assert have nothing to do with Vatican II because these are not mentioned in the actual text of Sacrosanctum Concilium, were already taking place in Rome itself, with the Pope's own endorsement and in his presence, long before the Council ended on December 8, 1965. 
(emphasis in original). I think Rorate is both wrong and right here. Obviously the record is as they describe it: Paul VI, Bugnini, and the lot were engaged in shenanigans that presaged (or reinforced) what happened around the world. But the argument that so-called conservatives make is narrower. That is, essentially, a textualist argument against the dynamic interpretative hermeneutic of the 1960s: Sacrosanctum Concilium does not say X, Y, or Z, and so one cannot be compelled to regard the presence of X, Y, or Z in the Mass as necessary or needful, nor can one legitimately be portrayed as opposing the Second Vatican Council's request for liturgical reforms* by saying otherwise.
"[W]hen  upon a point of ritual or of dedication or special worship a man talks to you of the Spirit and Intention, and complains of the dryness of the Word, look at him askance. He is not far removed from Heresy."
Everyone knows what actually happened, and everyone knows that Paul VI was, more or less, culpable for it. The debate over whether or not the texts can support the authentic reform that did not happen (a debate I do not enter here on the merits) is simply another matter.

* Set aside for the moment whether one may take such a position (it is abundantly evident that one may): opposing things that happen in practice is different, if not per se better, than opposing the actual request for reform articulated by the Council.

Monday, February 23, 2015

They have weekends in Canada, no?

I don't know how scared I'd be of a cease-and-desist letter written by an attorney who used the phrase "end of business on February 22, 2015."

Thursday, February 19, 2015

Well that was not bright

The Apostolic Commissioner, who has never exactly smelled of roses, claims that recent reporting on the status of a lawsuit between himself and the Manelli family contained material misstatements. When one reports on a defamation case, it might behoove one to get the facts straight.

Now, I don't read Italian, so while I can click through the links from Rorate's original post on the topic back to the source at "Don Camillo's" blog, I cannot verify whether the translation of Fr. Volpi's most recent letter on the topic is an accurate summary of the original article. Notably, it does not track what Rorate itself originally posted: the new letter by Fr. Volpi quotes the original writer as claiming he "was sentenced." I do not see this phrase in Rorate's original piece (at least, it's not there now: I'm not digging through caches and the wayback machine to see what was originally there; apparently the original source has admitted that "sentenced" was a mistake, assuming Google Translate gives an accurate sense).

A few thoughts:
  1. In the United States, the truth is an absolute defense to a defamation action.1
  2. Also in the United States, a public figure can prevail in a defamation action only by showing "'actual malice'---that is, [that the statement was made] with knowledge that it was false or with reckless disregard of whether it was false or not."2
  3. European law is less protective of speech in general; the truth has not traditionally been an absolute defense and apparently remains not-a-defense in Italy.3
  4. Thus, one can see why, perhaps, Fr. Volpi might have negotiated a settlement while still maintaining that his statement regarding the Manelli family "was no lie, and could easily be verified."4 In Italy, the truth of the statement is not a guaranty of victory at trial.
  5. At the same time, it would be very unusual for one to enter into a settlement agreement that contained an actual admission of wrongdoing. Most settlement agreements expressly disclaim any such admission.
  6. That the settlement was confirmed by a court order is not implausible, though: even in the U.S. a settlement may be incorporated into a final consent judgment. Since the settlement in the Volpi case was purportedly negotiated in court-ordered mediation, it would not be outside the realm of reasonableness for that to have occurred.
  7. The defamation knife cuts both ways, of course: regarding Fr. Volpi's claim to be preparing a lawsuit of his own and rescission of the settlement agreement, one can say (a) that Rorate, to the extent its writers are situated in the U.S., is probably immune from any liability for its February 16, 2015, post, as Fr. Volpi is almost certainly a public or limited-public figure and Rorate's publication is unlikely to qualify as actually malicious; (b) that Don Camillo's potential liability would be governed by Italian law, which may be less forgiving; and (c) that while mileage may vary in Italy, Fr. Volpi would be unlikely to have grounds to rescind the settlement agreement under American legal principles unless the Don Camillo figure were under the Manelli family's control or he wrote what he did as a result of some conduct by them prohibited under the agreement.
P.S. (Feb. 23, 2015): It might go without saying, but in case it does not, my thoughts here are not on the merits of the Manelli suit against Fr. Volpi, nor of Fr. Volpi's claims against the Manelli family or anyone else. Opining on the merits would require knowledge of the true facts, which I lack. As for the matter in general, Fr. Volpi is the principal agent in what is, from all appearances, the profoundly unjust oppression of the F.F.I., a role for which he deserves opprobrium. That is true regardless of what legal claims he or anyone else might have.

1  See New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, 376 U.S. 254, 271 (1964).
2  Id. at 279--80.
3  International Press Institute, Key Findings: Defences in Defamation Cases, (last accessed February 19, 2015).
4  Was the statement true? Who knows; I have no way of knowing and it is beyond my purposes here to consider the question.

Friday, January 30, 2015


One would prefer to have quotes, rather than paraphrases. But the paraphrases are bad enough. Surely God has given us the leaders we deserve, rather than those we need.

Poscia ch'io v'ebbi alcun riconosciuto,
vidi e conobbi l'ombra di colui
che fece per viltade il gran rifiuto.

Friday, January 9, 2015

The Supposed Scandal of Proper Attire

Whiskey Catholic doesn't have a comments box, so I will make some comments on a recent post in this space.

First, the minutiae: the query posted by Whiskey Catholic contributor Michael asks about a "white tie" function and the lay perception of proper clerical attire thereat. Michael responds with a statement about "a black tie dinner." These, of course, are not the same thing. White tie is formal, black tie is semi-formal. Most American men will never again have the opportunity to attend a true white-tie function. It is our loss. In either event,* however, the proper clerical attire is not merely a cassock (as Michael says), but a cassock and ferraiolo. If a secular priest appeared at a formal function without a ferraiolo, he would be---and I would certainly think him---sloppily under-dressed. As for cuffs, one does not wear barrel cuffs with formal-wear. Laymen certainly do not, and it has been my impression (although I have not consulted an etiquette guide on the topic) that clerics do not either. So yes, a secular cleric at a formal or semi-formal affair should wear linked cuffs.

Second, the more substantial point: Michael's general take on the inquiry is spot-on. It bears noting that all of the situations inquired about by the reader involve the hypothetical priest being "on duty" or "at work," so to speak. The issue is not what does a priest wear about the rectory when reasonably secure from inquiring eyes, it was what does the priest wear when out and about, performing his sacred functions or at least appearing in public qua priest. And the laity not only expect, they desperately need, priests to conduct themselves in those moments in a manner concomitant with the dignity of their priesthood. (Frankly, we all need to conduct ourselves in a manner more concomitant with even basic human dignity, particularly in terms of dress.)

If I may diverge on one point, I can think of plenty of times it would be appropriate for a priest to wear sneakers, but they all involve athletics, or perhaps gardening. Priests, after all, can garden, play sports, and go running without giving scandal.

The risk of scandal is not from the priest who is properly attired, but rather from one who slouches about his parish in orange sneakers.

* If there is a distinction between clerical formal and semi-formal attire, I have never heard about it. But I haven't done a study. In a sane world, one would learn these things in a seminary, instead of debating whether one is expected to wear tennis shoes.